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标题: (已翻译)Lesson 7.3 - Training on the Campus Board [打印本页]

作者: fede    时间: 2009-12-24 16:36     标题: (已翻译)Lesson 7.3 - Training on the Campus Board

本帖最后由 steven 于 2010-2-5 15:07 编辑

The principal reasons for “campusing” are to train upper-body power and muscle fiber recruitment. To understand what we’re talking about, let’s make a few distinctions. While strength is the ability to maintain muscle contraction against a maximum load, power is the ability to generate a maximal contraction rapidly. Strength, then, is more of a static force, while power is dynamic. A campus board is an excellent tool for training strength, but its greatest asset by far is its ability to train power. If a hold on a climb can’t be reached under static strength, you need to move towards it explosively and that’s where power comes in. We define recruitment as the ability to fire as many of the fibers in a given muscle as possible at once. You need to increase your recruitment, not just for initiating a dynamic move, but also for “sticking” the target hold. While catching the target depends on timing and coordination, if you can’t contract enough muscle fibers rapidly enough, you won’t be able to hang on to it. Recruitment, then,especially forearm recruitment, is the key to sticking hard dead points, and“campusing” is the best way we know of to improve it. In the normal course of campus board training, you will also realize huge gains in dynamic technique:timing, coordination, confidence, etc., as well as static strength. “Campusing”will improve all aspects of your climbing. How much you should emphasize campus board training depends on your goals. Those wanting to improve their on-sight climbing should use it sparingly and concentrate on doing more climbing mileage, while those interested in succeeding on hard red points or boulder problems should use it as a primary training method. The board should be used in conjunction with other forms of training, for spells of 4 to 8 weeks, not continuously throughout the year. Gradually increase usage, from once a week to as much as 2 or 3 times a week, and then taper back down, as you re-emphasize other forms of training. As top climbers know, power takes a long time to gain,but once you have it, you retain it for much longer than endurance. Fresher Is Better When campusing, the general approach is different than when training for endurance. On the campus board, the idea is to do the hardest exercises that you can, in perfect style. You should only train on a campus board after a rest day or when you are completely recovered from your last climbing or training session. Additionally, you must rest after every exercise within your campus routine long enough to recover completely. Three to five minutes is the norm,but you can rest as much as 10 minutes if necessary. Power can only be trained on a totally fresh muscle.

How Much Is Too Much?
You’re determined to see an improvement, so you want to keep at it for hours, but you’re playing with fire. On a campus board, more work does not equal more gain; it equals injury. Never train to exhaustion on a campus board. Do the hardest moves you can in good style and come back two or three days later. Be patient and remember: so long as you don’t get injured, you will get stronger. As a general rule, it’s okay to do one to four sets of any given exercise. As long as you are improving or maintaining from one set to the next, it’s okay to continue with that exercise.As soon as you are weaker on one set than the last, it’s time to move on to another exercise or call it a day. Several exercises are described below; you cannot train all of them in the same session. Choose a couple of exercises each time and concentrate on those. Stop your session and begin your warm down when your muscles have lost their “snap”.

Rest
Resting is perhaps the best thing about campusing because you get to do more of it than with other types of training.Rest, rest and rest some more. Although well-conditioned campus addicts may rest for only about two full days after every session, if you push yourself hard, take three or four days off. Don't expect quick results. If you feel like you're resting too long, not doing quite enough, that's good; that's how you should feel.

Warm Up, Warm Down
It is critical to warm up thoroughly; much more so than with other forms of training. You can start by climbing, bouldering or doing easy pull-ups and dead hangs, along with gentle stretching.Make the first fifteen minutes ridiculously easy and gradually increase the intensity until you’re at full power. Reverse this process at the end of your session to prevent injury and speed up recovery. The warm down should be even easier than the warm up. It should feel as if your doing almost nothing. The idea is just to keep the blood flowing for 15 or 20 minutes after the high intensity part of your workout. A typical session might involve up to an hour of pull-ups, stretches and climbs up and down the board on the larger holds,with all of the high intensity exercises done in the next 20 to 30 minutes, followed by 15 to 20 minutes of warm down.

Stretching
Stretching is simply insurance against injury.Stretch regularly and you’ll wonder why you bother, but don’t stretch and one day you’ll suffer. It’s a good idea to stretch between sets and critical to stretch after the session, but be careful about stretching before your workout.Never stretch a cold muscle.

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How To Grasp The Grips
You want to use an open-handed grip as much as possible. Most climbers are weaker open-handed than crimped, so you may find this hard at first, but you’ll get used to it. Training open-handed will increase your crimp strength (but not vice-versa), and it is essential for holding pockets, slopers and certain edges, as well as making moves at maximum stretch, and catching dynos. Most importantly, however, using an open hand lowers the potential for injury. As you adapt to campus training, you can incorporate a little crimp training to increase your maximum edge-holding power, but keep it to a minimum.

What’s The Point?
The dead point is an instant in time, at the apex of any dynamic move, when you are neither rising nor falling. In all dynamic moves, large dynos or short snatches, the goal is to be in perfect position to grasp the target hold during the dead point. As you perfect this technique, the dead point will begin to feel like an instant of weightlessness.As you continue to improve your timing and coordination, the dead point will seem to get longer and longer.
“Campusing” is one of the best ways to improve your all-around “dead pointing” skill. Because you train movement between holds at varying distances, you learn how to generate the precise force and timing required to catch holds accurately and consistently. It cannot be overstressed how fundamental dynamic moves are to good climbing technique. A well-executed dyno is often more efficient than a static move, even when it’s not strictly necessary.

Alternate Your Leading Hand
You should do most sequences as pairs, first leading with one hand, then with the other. This avoids over-training your strong side and keeps you balanced.

Making It Easier
If you find some of the moves or exercises suggested here too difficult to start out on, put your feet on a chair or on the wall behind the board, to take off as much weight as necessary. Be sure to have ample padding under your board, as landing on your back is a distinct possibility.

Exercises

Power Throws
This fundamental exercise trains forearm recruitment, upper-body power and dead point accuracy through explosive upward moves between rungs at various levels. Each sequence involves two moves plus matching at a hold. Number the rungs 1, 2, 3 on up, starting with the lowest.With your feet hanging free and both hands on the lowest convenient rung,launch for another rung with one hand, then reach for an even higher rung with the other, match, and you’re through. For example, match and hang on rung 1.Throw with your right hand to rung 4, then pull through to rung 6 with your left. Match on rung 6 and drop. Try to complete the same exercise by using every possible sequence of holds between the lower and upper chosen rungs, for example: 1-2-6, 1-3-6, 1-4-6, 1-5-6. Different push-pull forces, as well as different timing, are required with hands at different levels and although the moves in the middle range will feel easy, those at the extremes will not. Also,try going all-out for the maximum total distance, say 1-4-8 or 1-5-9. *Remember to lead with alternate hands.

Doubles & Plyometrics
Moving both hands at the same time is a great way to improve overall coordination. It also builds recruitment and confidence.Begin by doing the easiest moves to feel this out. Just jump from one rung to the next. Eventually, increase your range and stack a series of doubles together,climbing up the board and down again. An advanced version of this is the “two steps forward one step backward” routine: 1-3-2-4-3-5-4-6 etc. A related exercise is plyometric campusing, which involves dropping both hands from a higher hold to a lower one (a reverse double dyno), then jumping up again as fast as possible. The key is absorbing the downward motion and reversing the force into an upward motion as rapidly and smoothly as possible. Be careful not to overdo it. This is a very advanced exercise, and the potential for injury is very high. Never catch a hold with your elbows locked or extend all the way to a locked elbow on the negative contraction. Feel out your tolerance with some easy moves on large holds the first few times. Introduce this exercise gradually, a little more each week for a few months. Even when you’ve adapted to high intensity campus training, don’t do hard plyometric sessions more than once a week.

Static Moves & Lock-Offs
Any kind of campusing will improve your statics strength as a spin-off, but you can train it specifically by doing small “power throws” slowly and as statically as possible. Also try “laddering” up and down the board a rung or two at a time, without dynoing. Static lock-offs can be trained by putting your feet on the wall behind the board or on a chair, to take as much weight as necessary. As with all campus board exercises, make the moves hard enough to keep the total number of repetitions low (3-5 on each arm). The idea is to train maximum force, not endurance.

Variations
When you feel like you’ve adapted to full hand training, you might want to try isolating fingers. Two fingers is the norm here, but don’t be afraid to mix it up. As with everything, build up slowly.You might want to start by doing dead-hangs and pull-ups with various combination of three, two, or one finger. Again, use the wall or a chair to take weight as necessary. It is important also to realize that different sized holds will train different muscles. If you’ve been focusing your training on small holds, forearm strength may no longer be your limiting factor. You should also train longer moves on larger holds for a while, to increase the recruitment of your upper arms and torso. In cut or flat holds will slightly alter the muscles used and it’s worth experimenting with as many types as possible. The more you vary your training, the more effective it will be.

What Works For You?
While we are not sports physiologists, we do have a lot of hands-on experience and have learned from some of the best climbers in the world. However, exercises that work for us may not work for you and vice-versa. Experiment with your own program and figure out what works best for you. Always remember to warm up thoroughly, start small, and take plenty of rest days.

Don’t Forget To Go Climbing
Finally, of course, the whole point is to improve your climbing. “Campusing” is a powerful tool for improvement, but any gain made on the board will require a period of adaptation on the rock for you to see its full value. So go climbing, have fun, and remember, all it takes to succeed is a modicum of talent and a lot of dedication. In the words of Sheffield’s master boulderer Richie Patterson: “Be good, and if you can’t be good, be strong.”

图片附件: sshot-9.jpg (2009-12-24 16:36, 19.25 KB) / 下载次数 462
http://xmclimber.com/attachment.php?aid=1762&k=1009325798005ed7ae4e1b776c4adab1&t=1573556984&sid=UyJe4e


作者: fede    时间: 2009-12-24 16:53

本帖最后由 steven 于 2010-2-5 14:57 编辑

第七课(3--木条指力板训练


利用木条指力板训练的首要原因是为了训练上身的爆发力和肌肉纤维动员能力。让我们来做一些区分,以便了解我们所谈的是什么东西。力量指的是保持肌肉收缩以承受最大负荷的能力;爆发力指的是迅速产生最大肌肉收缩的能力。力量更多指的是静态力量;爆发力指的是动态力量。木条指力板是一种训练力量极好的工具,但是它最大的优点就是用来训练爆发力。如果线路上的点用静态力量无法够着的话,你就必须动态地向这个点移动,这就是爆发力起的作用。我们给肌肉纤维动员能力的定义是:在特定肌肉迅速发动最多肌肉纤维的能力。你必须提高肌肉纤维的动员能力,不光是为了做动态动作,同时为了抓住目标点。抓住目标点靠的是把握时机和协调能力。如果你无法及时收缩足够多的肌肉纤维,就无法紧紧抓住手点。肌肉纤维动员能力,特别是前臂的肌肉纤维动员能力,是抓住高难度的dead point的决定因素,而木条指力板训练就是提高这个能力的最佳方法。

在平常的木条指力板训练过程中,你还会发觉动态技术也得到极大的提高:如时机把握能力,协调能力和自信心等,以及静态力量。它将全面地提高你攀岩的能力。需要花多大的精力来加强木条指力板训练,要看你的目标。想要提高ON-SIGHT 能力的攀岩者应该谨慎地使用木条指力板,并专注于爬更多的线路;而那些对想成功红点高难度线路或抱石线路的攀岩者来说,应该将他作为主要的训练方法。它应该作为其他不同的训练方法间的连接项目,在4-8周的时间段内进行,而不是整年持续地训练。慢慢地增加使用量,从一周1次到最多一周2次或3次,然后随着重新加强其他形式的训练,而逐渐减量。因为高水平的攀岩者知道,爆发力要很长时间才能获得,但一旦拥有,可以比耐力保持更长的时间。训练时,状态越佳越好。爆发力训练和耐力训练的总体方法大不相同。

在木条指力板上,目的是用最佳的方式做你能做到的最难的练习。你只能在间隔一个休息日后,或当你完全从上次的攀爬或训练期完全恢复后,才进行木条指力板训练。另外,在训练的每个练习之间,你必须充分休息至完全恢复。35分钟为标准,但如果必要的话,你也可以休息至10分钟。爆发力只有在完全恢复的肌肉上训练才能获得。


多少训练量才是过量?
你决意想看到提高的效果,因此你想坚持训练几个小时。但是这样做是在玩火。在木条指力板上,更多的训练量并不等于得到更多;而是等于受伤。不要在木条指力板上训练直至力竭。用最好的方式做你可以做到的最难的动作,然后休息2-3天后再继续。要有耐心并记住:只要你不受伤,你就会变得更强。总的原则是,你可以做1-4组任意指定的练习。只要你可以得到提高并保持从一组到下一组,那你就可以继续那个练习。一旦你变得比上一组弱的时候,就该换另外一种练习方法或结束当天的训练。以下列举了几种练习,不要在同一段时间训练所有的项目。每次选其中几个练习并集中精力进行训练。当肌肉疲劳时,就应该结束训练,并开始进行收身运动。

休息
对木条指力板训练来说休息可能是最好的东西,因为比起其他训练,你需要更多的休息。休息,休息,再休息多一些。如果你很艰苦地训练,那就休息3-4天吧,尽管有些状态良好的木条指力板痴迷者可能在每个训练后只休息2天。不要期望太快的结果。如果你觉得好像自己休息太长时间了,训练量不够。那就对了,你的感觉就应该是这样。

热身和收身
比起其他形式的训练,完全的热身对木条指力板训练更加重要。你可以先从攀爬,抱石或做些简单的引体和悬吊,以及轻微的拉筋开始。前15分钟可以可笑般的简单,然后慢慢增加强度至达到最佳状态。在训练的结尾将这个过程反过来,以防止受伤和加速恢复。收身甚至应该比热身更简单,就像你什么也没做那样。目的是为了在高强度的训练部分结束后,让你的血液循环保持15-20分钟。最典型的训练可以是包含了足足一个小时的引体、拉伸和在木板大点上爬上爬下,接下来20-30分钟全部是高强度的练习,最后是15-20分钟的收身。

拉筋
拉筋就是为了防止受伤。如果定期拉筋的话,你会惊讶为什么自己要烦恼;但是如果不拉筋,总有一天你会吃到苦头的。在每组练习间拉筋是个好注意,尤其是训练结束后更重要。但是训练前拉筋就要小心了,千万不要拉伸未热身的肌肉。

如何抓手点
应该尽量使用open-hand的抓法(见图例)。大多数攀岩者的open-hand抓法都比crimp抓法(见图例)弱,所以一开始你可能觉得很难,但是慢慢的你会习惯。训练open-hand的能力将提高你的crimp力量(但反过来可不是这样),而且它是抓住指洞点、光滑的点(有些人叫open点)和某些特定的点,以及在极限力量下做动作和动态后抓住点的基本要素。更重要的是,使用open-hand抓法可以降低受伤的几率。一旦你适应了木条指力板训练,你可以加入一些crimp抓法的训练来提高抓住小边沿点的力量,但是将这种训练的量保持在最少。

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什么是最佳时机点?
静止点(dead point) 是时间上的某个瞬间,在动态动作的最高点,当你既不是上升也不是下落的时候。在各种动态动作、大的动态或短距离的抓握手点中,目标就是在静止点期间在最佳的位置抓住目标点。随着你完善这个技术,静止点就会觉好像是失重的瞬间。再随着你继续提高把握时机的能力和协调性,就会觉得静止点好像变得原来越长一样。
木条指力板训练是提高全方位dead pointing技巧(静止点动作技巧)的最佳方法之一。因为你在各种距离的点之间训练动作,你知道了如何精确地发力和所需的时机来准确稳定地抓住手点。说基本的动态动作是好的攀爬技术一点也不过分。一个干净利落的动态经常比静态动作更有效率,即使是在不那么必要的时候。

转换起始手
大多数的连续动作都应该成双来做,首先从一只手开始,然后再换另一只手。这样可以防止过度训练你有力的一边,并保持你的力量平衡。

降低难度
开始时如果你觉得这里建议的有些动作或练习太难了,把你的一只脚踩到椅子上或木板后的墙上,以减轻必要的重量。木条指力板下一定要铺好足够的垫子,因为背部着地的可能性很大。

练习项目

爆发式移动
通过在多层的木条间爆发性的向上移动,这个基础练习可以训练前臂肌肉动员能力,上身爆发力和dead point的准确性。每组包含了2个动作加一个在同一个点上的双手合并。从最低格开始,上方标出123格。双手抓住最底下的一格,两脚离地悬空,然后拉起,一只手抓另外一格,接着另一只手向上抓更高的另一格,最后双手合并。这样就算完成了。举个例子,双手合并吊在第1格,拉起,右手抓第4格,然后再拉起,左手抓第6个,最后在第6格双手合并,再跳下来。尽量在不同的特定低格和高格之间尝试完成不同的动作组合,例如:1-2-6, 1-3-6, 1-4-6, 1-5-6。不同的下压、上拉力量,以及不同的时机都要求手在不同的木条上,虽然你会觉得中等距离的动作简单,但是极限距离的动作却会很难。另外,也可以尝试全力做最远距离的动作,如1-4-8 或 1-5-9。注意:记得换不同的起始手。

双手和弹簧式反弹练习
双手同时拉起移动是一种提高全面协调性的好方法。同时可以建立肌肉动员能力和信心。可以先从最简单的移动来感觉动作要领。先一格一格的跳,慢慢增加距离至一系列在板上爬上再爬下的组合动作。最高级的版本是2步上,1步下的方法:1-3-2-4-3-5-4-6等。另外一个相关的练习是弹簧式反弹练习,包含了双手同时从高点降到低一格的点(反向的双手动态),接着马上迅速向上跳起的动作。要点就是吸收向下的动力,并尽可能迅速平稳地将这个力量转换成向上的动力。注意不要过多做这个练习。这是一个非常高级的练习,而且受伤的几率非常大。抓住点时,不要锁住手肘或肌肉反向收缩至锁定肘部。开始的几次,在大点上做一些简单的动作来感觉一下你的肌肉承受力。逐渐开始这个练习,开头几个月内每周增加一点点训练量。即使你已经适应了高强度的木条指力板训练,一周也不要做超过一次的高难度弹簧式反弹练习。

静态动作和锁定
任何一种木条指力板训练的结果都会提高你的静态力量,但是你也可以通过尽可能慢慢静态地做小的爆发性移动来特别训练静态力量。也可以试一下不用动态,用一次1格或2格的方式做上下楼梯式的练习。静态锁定力可以通过将脚踩在板后面的墙上或椅子上来训练,这样可以减轻必要的负重。所有木条指力板练习的动作都要有足够的难度,要保持在只能做少数几次(每手3-5次)。目的是为了训练最大力量,而不是耐力。

多样性
当你觉得自己已经适应了整只手的训练,也许你想试一下单独手指的训练。本文的标准是2指,但是不用担心,你也可以混合训练。凡事都是慢慢进步建立起来的。你也许想从不同组合的3指,2指或单指的垂直悬吊和引体开始。记得用墙或椅子来减轻重量,如果有必要的话。认识到不同大小的点可以训练不同的肌肉这一点也很重要。如果你一直专注于在小点上训练,前臂的力量可能已经不再是你的极限因素了。你应该在大点上训练远一点的大幅度动作一段时间,来增加你上臂和躯干的肌肉动员能力。在尖锐或平的点上会轻微改变所用的肌肉,并且尝试越多不同类型的点越有用处。你的训练越多样,效率也就越高。

什么对你才有用?
我们虽然不是运动生理学家,但是我们有很多的实际经验,并可以向世界上一些顶尖的攀岩者学习,然而,有些练习对我们有作用,但不一定对你有效,反之亦然。实践一下你自己的训练计划,并找出对你最有用的方法。永远要记得完全热身,从简单开始,并且有足够的休息日。

别忘了出去攀岩
最后,所有的目的当然是提高你攀岩的水平。木条指力板是一种让你进步的有力训练工具,但是在板上得到的东西要在岩壁上适应一段时间后你才能看出它的价值。因此出去攀岩吧,享受快乐,并且记住成功的因素是一点点的天赋加N多的奉献。用英国谢菲尔德抱石大师Richie Patterson的话就是:“做优秀的,如果不能的话,那就做有实力的”。

                                         (完)

Ciao Steven, this is the last lesson...If you already did all the lessons you are ready to climb ;)
I wrote a lot but I had no time to train, we will attend the New Year Party on January 23rd so...It's time to work-out. I coming to fight with your boulders!

By the way, many thanks for your useful translation!!

See you next year.
大家好,祝你们圣诞快乐!!

Thanks
fede

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作者: 袋鼠    时间: 2009-12-24 22:56

MERRY CHRISTMAS ,FEDE AND LAURA !
作者: steven    时间: 2009-12-26 11:13

本帖最后由 steven 于 2009-12-26 11:14 编辑

2# fede

Thanks for your lessons. It's a great help.:handshake

I translate too much but train too less:lol

Merry Christmas & Happy New Year!
作者: steven    时间: 2010-2-5 15:09

Finally, it's done!!!:victory:

This lesson really took time. Thanks again for the lessons, Fede.:handshake
作者: fede    时间: 2010-2-6 02:31

Thanks Steven, 新年快乐!!!
作者: 自由人    时间: 2010-12-13 11:33

回复 2# fede

非常又帮助




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